After Muslims were hassled by the Quraysh on their way to Mecca to perform the umrah, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) decided that it was time to take diplomatic action. The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was composed, providing for a ten-year-truce and allowing ample time for outside tribes to make their alliances. Peace came to the hijaz. Little did the early Muslims know, it was only temporary.
Banu Bakr–a tribe that had allied itself with the Quraysh–snuck into a Muslim encampment at night and massacred its residents on sacred ground. Although aggression from the Banu Bakr had emerged before, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) felt betrayed by the breach of the treaty. Abu Sufyan of the Quraysh, fearing impending war, ran ahead to Medina to salvage the treaty, but it was too late. The Muslims had mobilized for war.
The Muslims surrounded Mecca. The lights from their torches illuminated the desert and terrified the Quraysh. Abu Sufyan once again attempted to restore diplomacy by sneaking into the Muslim encampment, but he was quickly spotted and taken to Prophet Muhammad (SAW) , where he was challenged to become a Muslim. He was hesitant, and confessed that he was not sure about the Prophet’s (SAW) legitimacy. He did know that the Meccan idols had proven powerless, and that he believed in the beauty of Allah (SWT) . Eventually, his doubt was gone, perhaps due in part to observing the Muslims’ reverence at Medina and outside of his home city. Abu Sufyan was now a Muslim, and an alliance was made between the two men.
Many of the Muslims had expected a bloody battle. Abu Sufyan’s conversion had dramatically shifted the dynamic in the camps surrounding Mecca. Along with his companions, Prophet Muhammad (SAW) paid a visit to the Ka’aba, where they destroyed the idols and false gods surrounding the site.
The Muslims used the victory over Mecca to spread the faith throughout the city. However, the peace won in victory would only last for awhile.
The Muslims then flocked to the Ka’aba, where Prophet Muhammad (SAW) issued a powerful warning to the remaining Quraysh:
Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property is abolished except that of the custody of the Ka’aba and of supplying water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for any one who is slain the blood money is a hundred camels. People of Quraish, surely God has abolished from you all pride of the time of ignorance and all pride in your ancestry, because all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made of clay.
The Muslims used the conquest of Mecca to spread the faith throughout the city. However, the peace won in victory would only last for a shortwhile.